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Quelle: Ketron Mitchell-Wynne, PhD, Asantha Cooray, PhD, Department of Physics Astronomie, School of Physical Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA

Der zweite Hauptsatz der Thermodynamik ist ein Grundgesetz der Natur. Es besagt, dass die Entropie eines Systems immer erhöht sich im Laufe der Zeit oder im Idealfall konstant bleibt, wenn ein System in einen stabilen Zustand oder in einem "reversibler Prozess." Wenn das System einen unumkehrbaren Prozess unterzogen wird, wird die Entropie des Systems immer erhöht. Dies bedeutet, dass die Änderung der Entropie, ΔS, immer größer oder gleich Null ist. Die Entropie eines Systems ist ein Maß für die Anzahl der mikroskopische Konfigurationen, die das System erreichen kann. Gas in einem Behälter mit bekanntem Volumen, Druck und Temperatur können z. B. eine enorme Anzahl von möglichen Konfigurationen der einzelnen Gasmoleküle. Wenn der Container geöffnet wird, die Gasmoleküle entkommen und die Anzahl der Konfigurationen steigt dramatisch, im wesentlichen nähert sich unendlich. Wenn der Container geöffnet wird, soll die Entropie zu erhöhen. Daher kann Entropie ein Maß für die "Störung" eines Systems betrachtet werden.

JoVE Science Education Database. Grundlagen der Physik I. Entropie. JoVE, Cambridge, MA, (2018).

Vitamin C: Vitamin C is involved in several physiological functions including growth, devel¬opment, reproduction, wound healing, response to stressors and possibly lipid metabolism through its action on carnitine synthesis while administering in feed. Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) is a co-factor in many biological processes including collagen synthesis and cellular functions related to neuromodulation, hormone and immune systems. It has been observed by Tewary and Patra [ 39 ] that higher levels of dietary vitamin C significantly increased the protection against A. hydrophila .

Vitamin C:

Vitamin E: Vitamin E can enhance specific and cell-mediated immunity against infection in Japanese Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus [ 40 ] and macrophage phagocytosis in fish such as channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus [ 41 ] and turbot Scopthalamus maximus [ Cheap Amazing Price Shop Offer Sale Online Jimmy Choo Suede WrapAround Sandals Official Site Supply Cheap Price Lowest Price Online kDMLlUlPU
]. Vitamin E deficiencies in trout result in reduced protection against Y. ruckeri [ 43 ].

Vitamin E:

Hormones

Growth hormone (GH): GH directly affects immune competent cells like macrophages, lymphocytes and NK cells. In fish, exogenous growth hormone (GH) has mitogenic activity on lymphocytes and activates NK cells and production of superoxide anions of leucocytes.

Growth hormone (GH):

Prolactin: Prolactin also directly affects immune competent cells like macrophages, lymphocytes and NK cells. It can enhance the production of superoxide anions of leucocytes. Sakai et al. [ 44 ] documented that prolactin helps in increased level of production of superoxide anion in rainbow trout by leucocytes.

Prolactin:

Lactoferrin, consist of a single peptide chain with molecular wt. ~ 87,000 Da and posses 2 Fe-binding sites per molecule, most popular physiological fluids of mammals [ 2 ].

Cytokines: Cytokines are polypeptides or glyco-proteins which act as modulators in the immune System. Cytokines may be useful as powerful immunostimulants if their structures can be identified and recombinant molecules prepared.

Cytokines:

Algal derivatives

Laminaran is a β (1, 6)-branched β (1, 3)-D-glucan, a major component in sub-littoral brown algae, e.g. Phaeophyceae. Almost all B-(1, 3) D-glucan display poor water solubility which makes them less easy to handle than aqueous soluble laminaria. Laminaran obtained from Laminaria hyperhorea has immune modulatory effect on immune system as well.

Immunological system in fish

The immune system is the system which continuously fights against the pathogen and give proper protection to our body. The two types of immune system are innate immune system or non specific immune system and acquired immune system or adaptive immune system. The essence of the immunological system of the vertebrates is to react and protect against the infections. Proper work of the immunological system of a fish involves different cells and organs. There are different factors that affect the immunological response of the fish. Inherent factors like health and age, extrinsic like temperature or changes in abiotic parameters them all together affect the health condition, and thus the response. Those changes cause in some cases stress, which if achieves high level generates an immunological system collapse [ Manolo Blahnik Carloyne Slingback Pumps Buy Cheap Original JS0ic2zRP
].

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